The next-generation 4G technology
for both GSM and CDMA cellular carriers. Approved in 2008 with download speeds up to 173 Mbps, LTE was defined by the 3G Partnership Project in the 3GPP Release 8 specification.
uses a different air interface and packet structure than previous 3G systems, which are GSM's UMTS (WCDMA and HSPA) and CDMA's EV-DO. However, it is envisioned that all GSM and CDMA2000 carriers will eventually migrate to LTE to provide an interoperable cellular system worldwide.
LTE Officially 4G
is considerably faster than GSM's HSPA and CDMA's EV-DO but was considered a 3G technology by the ITU until late 2010. Along with WiMAX 2, the ITU previously designated LTE-A (LTE-Advanced) as the true 4G evolution
. In late 2010, the ITU widened its definition to include regular LTE, WiMAX
and HSPA+ as bona fide 4G technologies
since they are considerably faster than existing 3G networks
) ITU standards for fourth-generation (4G) wireless phones. The two proposed IMT-Advanced technologies are LTE-Advanced and WiMAX 2. The goals of IMT-Advanced are peak user data rates of 1 Gbps for stationary users and 100 Mbps for mobile users.
4G Moniker OK for Existing Networks
In late 2010, the ITU stated that the 4G designation could be applied to LTE, WiMAX and HSPA+ technologies since they delivered much higher speeds than 3G.
E-UTRA/OFDMA, IP and IMS
uses the Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) air interface, which is based on OFDMA and is a departure from the TDMA used in GSM and the CDMA used in GSM/UMTS and CDMA2000
ystem for m
A digital cellular telephone technology that is based on time-division multiple access; it operates on the 900-megahertz and 1.8-gigahertz bands in Europe, where it is the predominant cellular system, and on the 1.9-gigahertz band in the United States.
In addition, rather than proprietary packet structures, LTE is based entirely on IP packets, and voice travels over IP (VoIP). The IP part of LTE is called "Evolved Packet System" (EPS), which was previously called "System Architecture Evolution" (SAE).
3GPP Long Term Evolution
, referred to as LTE
and marketed as 4G LTE
, is a standard for wireless communication of high-speed data for mobile phones and data terminals. It is based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA network technologies, increasing the capacity and speed using new modulation techniques. The standard is developed by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) and is specified in its Release 8 document series, with minor enhancements described in Release 9.
The world's first publicly available LTE service was launched by TeliaSonera in Oslo and Stockholm on 14 December 2009. LTE
is the natural upgrade path for carriers with GSM/UMTS networks, but even CDMA holdouts such as Verizon Wireless, who launched the first large-scale LTE network in North America in 2010, and au by KDDI in Japan have announced they will migrate to LTE. LTE
is, therefore, anticipated to become the first truly global mobile phone standard, although the use of different frequency bands in different countries will mean that only multi-band phones will be able to utilize LTE in all countries where it is supported.
Although marketed as 4G wireless service, LTE as specified in the 3GPP Release 8 and 9 document series does not satisfy the requirements set forth by the ITU-R organization. The LTE Advanced
standard satisfies the ITU-R requirements to be considered 4G
(see LTE Advanced
volution (LTE) Advanced is a mobile communication standard, formally submitted as a candidate 4G system to ITU-T in late 2009, was approved into ITU, International Telecommunications Union, IMT-Advanced and was finalized by 3GPP in March 2011.
It is standardized by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) as a major enhancement of the Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard.